Breath testing is the most widely utilized modality to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and/or intestinal methanogen overgrowth (IMO). Although SIBO can be diagnosed with small bowel aspiration and breath testing, IMO can only be diagnosed with breath testing in clinical practice. Breath testing can tailor antibiotic therapy and predict response to treatment; however, the test is limited by its indirect method of measurement and concerns about the variability of orocecal transit time. Like any clinical test, breath testing has inherent strengths and limitations, and results must be interpreted with consideration of the clinical context and influencing factors. Recent studies have demonstrated the expanding clinical utility of breath testing in the diagnosis, management, and prediction of treatment response in SIBO and particularly in IMO along with the identification of distinct breath test patterns such as flat-line and high baseline hydrogen. This article reviews the strengths and limitations of breath testing in diagnosing SIBO and IMO as well as its expanding utility in clinical practice.